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US Information Technology Law

Compiled and edited by Dr. Roland Vogl

Executive Director, Program in Law, Science and Technology, Stanford Law School

Computer crime and network security

  • Identity Theft Penalty Enhancement Act, Pub. L. No. 108-275, 118 Stat. 831 (Jul. 15, 2004), codified at 18 U.S.C. 1028A, amending Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998 (ITADA), Pub. L. No. 105-318, 112 Stat. 3007 (Oct. 30, 1998)
  • Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing ("CAN-SPAM") Act of 2003, Pub. L. No. 108-187, 117 Stat. 2699 (Dec. 16, 2003), codified at 15 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.
  • Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today Act of 2003 (PROTECT Act), Pub. L. No. 108-21, 117 Stat. 650 (Apr. 30, 2003), codified at various code sections
  • Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 (FISMA), Pub. L. No. 107-347, 116 Stat. 2899 (Dec. 17, 2002), codified at 44 U.S.C. (part of the E-Government Act of 2002)
  • Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (Nov. 25, 2002), codified at various code sections (includes Cyber Security Enhancement Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (Nov. 25, 2002), codified at 6 U.S.C. 145 and Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (Nov. 25, 2002)), codified at 6 U.S.C. 131 et seq.
  • Cyber-Security Research and Development Act, Pub. L. No. 107-305, 116 Stat. 2367 (Nov. 27, 2002), codified at 15 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.
  • Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272 (Oct. 26, 2001), codified at various code sections (includes Critical Infrastructures Protection Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272 (Oct. 26, 2001), codified at 42 U.S.C. 5196c)
  • Protection of Children From Sexual Predators Act of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-314, 112 Stat. 2974 (Oct. 30, 1998), codified at various code sections (includes sections penalizing transmission of information about minors)
  • Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-277, 112 Stat. 2681 (Oct. 21, 1998), codified at 15 U.S.C. (§§ 6501 et seq. of the Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1999)
  • No Electronic Theft (NET) Act of 1997, Pub. L. No. 105-147, 111 Stat. 2678 (Dec. 16, 1997), amending 17 U.S.C. 506(a)
  • National Information Infrastructure Protection Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-294, 110 Stat. 3488 (Oct. 11, 1996), codified at 18 U.S.C. 1030
  • Economic Espionage Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-294, 110 Stat. 3488 (Oct. 11, 1996), codified at 18 U.S.C. 1831 (passed as part of the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act of 1996)
  • Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-106, 110 Stat. 186 (Feb. 10, 1996), codified at 40 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.
  • Communications Decency Act (CDA) of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-104, 110 Stat. 56 (Feb. 8, 1996), codified at various code sections (§ 501 et seq. of the Telecommunications Act of 1996)
  • Computer Security Act of 1987, Pub. L. No. 100-235, 101 Stat. 1724 (Jan. 8, 1988), codified at various code sections
  • Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) of 1986, Pub. L. No. 99-474, 100 Stat. 1213 (Oct. 16, 1986), codified at 18 U.S.C. 1030, amending Counterfeit Access Device and Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-473, 98 Stat. 1837 (Oct. 12, 1984)
  • Interstate Transportation of Wagering Paraphernalia Act of 1961, Pub. L. No. 87-218, 75 Stat. 492 (Sept. 13, 1961), codified, as amended, at 18 U.S.C. 1953
  • Federal Wire Fraud Act of 1952, 66 Stat. 722 (Jul. 16.1952), codified, as subsequently amended, at 18 U.S.C. 1343
  • Federal Gambling Laws, 63 Stat. 92 (May 24, 1949), codified, as subsequently amended, at 18 U.S.C., Ch. 50
  • National Stolen Property Act of 1948, 62 Stat. 806 (Jun. 25,1948), codified, as subsequently amended, at 18 U.S.C. 2314
  • Federal Child Pornography Law, codified at 18 U.S.C. 2251, 2252

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Consumer protection and distance selling

  • Identity Theft Penalty Enhancement Act of 2004, Pub. L. No. 108-275, 118 Stat. 831 (Jul. 15, 2004), codified at 18 U.S.C. 1028A, amending Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act (“ITADA”) of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-318, 112 Stat. 3007 (Oct. 30, 1998)
  • Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing ("CAN-SPAM") Act of 2003 Pub. L. No. 108-187, 117 Stat. 2699 (Dec. 16, 2003), codified at 15 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.
  • Do-Not-Call Implementation Act of 2003, Pub. L. No. 108-10, 117 Stat. 557 (Mar. 11, 2003), codified at 15 U.S.C. 6101 Note (implementing legislation for regulation established pursuant to the Telemarketing and Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act of 1994)
    • Federal Trade Commission ("FTC"), Telemarketing Sales Rule, 16 C.F.R. 310 (1994)
  • Dot-Kids Implementation and Efficiency Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-317, 116 Stat. 2766 (Dec. 4, 2002), codified at 47 U.S.C. 941
  • Internet False Identification Prevention Act of 2000, Pub. L. No. 106-578, 114 Stat. 3075 (Dec. 28, 2000), codified at 18 U.S.C. 1028
  • Child Internet Protection Act (CIPA) of 2000, Pub. L. No. 106-554, 114 Stat. 2763A-335 (Dec. 21, 2000), codified at various code sections (passed as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2001)
  • Electronic Benefit Transfer Interoperability and Portability Act of 1999, Pub. L. No. 106-171, 114 Stat. 3 (Feb. 11, 2000), codified at 7 U.S.C. 2016
  • Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act of 1999, Pub. L. No. 106-113, 113 Stat. 1501 (Nov. 29, 1999), codified at \ 15 U.S.C. 1125
  • Protection of Children From Sexual Predators Act of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-314, 112 Stat. 2974 (Oct. 30, 1998), codified at various code sections (includes sections penalizing transmission of information about minors)
  • Child Online Protection Act (COPA) of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-277, 112 Stat. 2681 (Oct. 21, 1998), codified at 47 U.S.C. 231 (§ 1401-1402 et seq. of the Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1999)
  • Child Pornography Prevention Act (CPPA) of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009 (Sept. 30, 1996), codified at 18 U.S.C. 2252A (passed as part of the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act of 1997)
  • Communications Decency Act (CDA) of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-104, 110 Stat. 56 (Feb. 8, 1996), codified at various code sections (§ 501 et seq. of the Telecommunications Act of 1996)
  • Telemarketing and Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act of 1994, Pub. L. No. 103-297, 108 Stat. 1545 (Aug. 16, 1994), codified at 15 U.S.C. 6101-6108
  • Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) of 1991, Pub. L. No. 102-243, 105 Stat. 2394 (Dec. 20, 1991), codified at 47 U.S.C. 227
    • FCC Rules and Regulations Implementing the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, Aug. 4, 2004, codified at 47 C.F.R., Parts 64 and 68
  • False Identification Crime Control Act of 1982, Pub. L. No. 97-398, 96 Stat. 2009 (Dec. 31, 1982), codified at 18 U.S.C. 1028
  • Electronic Fund Transfer Act of 1978, Pub. L. No. 95-630, 92 Stat. 3641 (Nov. 10, 1978), codified at 15 U.S.C. 1693-1693r (§ 2001 of the Financial Institutions Regulatory and Interest Rate Control Act of 1978) (limits consumer liability for certain financial transactions), amending Consumer Credit Protection Act of 1968, Pub. L. No. 90-321, 82 Stat. 146 (May 29, 1968), codified at 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.
  • Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”), Pub. L. No. 90-321, 82 Stat. 146 (May 29, 1968), codified at 15 U.S.C. 1601
  • Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, Pub. L. No. 93-637, 88 Stat. 2183 (Jan. 4, 1975), codified at 15 U.S.C. 2301-2312 (regulates warranties on consumer products)
  • Federal Wire Fraud Act of 1952, 66 Stat. 722 (Jul. 16. 1952), codified, as subsequently amended, at 18 U.S.C. 1343
  • The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914, 38 Stat. 717 (Sept. 26, 1914), codified at 15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.
  • Lanham Trade-Mark Act of 1946, 50 Stat. 427 (Jul. 5,1946), codified, as amended, at 15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.

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Domain names

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=E-commerce: certain legal aspects

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E-money

  • Electronic Fund Transfer Act of 1978, Pub. L. No. 95-630, 92 Stat. 3641 (Nov. 10, 1978), codified at 15 U.S.C. 1693-1693r (§ 2001 of the Financial Institutions Regulatory and Interest Rate Control Act of 1978) (limits consumer liability for certain financial transactions), amending Consumer Credit Protection Act of 1968, Pub.L. No. 90-321, 82 Stat. 146 (May 29, 1968), codified at 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.
  • Federal Reserve Board,

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E-signatures and encryption (cryptography)

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Jurisdiction and applicable law

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Privacy and data protection

  • Social Security Protection Act of 2003, Pub. L. No. 108-203, 118 Stat. 493 (Mar. 2, 2004)
  • Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACTA) of 2003, Pub. L. No. 108-159, 117 Stat. 1952 (Dec. 4, 2003), codified at 15 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.
  • Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272 (Oct. 26, 2001), codified at various code sections (includes Critical Infrastructures Protection Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272 (Oct. 26, 2001), codified at  42 U.S.C. 5196c)
  • Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 (“Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act”), Pub. L. No. 106-102, 113 Stat. 1338, 1436-45 (Nov. 12, 1999), codified at various code sections
    • FTC, Standards for Insuring the Security Confidentiality, Integrity and Protection of Customer Records and Information (“Safeguards Rule”), 16 C.F.R. 314 (May 23, 2002)
    • FTC, Privacy of Consumer Financial Information ("Financial Privacy Rule"), 16 C.F.R. 313(May 24, 2000)
    • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"), Privacy Regulation Part 332, 12 C.F.R. 332 (Nov. 13, 2000)
    • Federal Reserve Board ("FRB"), Regulation P (Privacy of Consumer Financial Information), 12 C.F.R. 216 (Jun. 1, 2000)
  • Wireless Communications and Public Safety Act of 1999, Pub. L. No. 106-81, 113 Stat. 1286 (Oct. 26, 1999), codified in relevant part at 47 U.S.C. 222
  • Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (“COPPA”) of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-277, 112 Stat. 2681 (Oct. 21, 1998), codified at 15 U.S.C. 6501 et seq. (Title XIII of theOmnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1999)
  • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-191, 100 Stat. 1936 (Aug. 21, 1996), codified at various code sections
    • Department of Health and Human Services ("DHHS"), Health Insurance Reform: Security Standards; Final Rule, 45 C.F.R. 160, 162, 164 (Feb. 20, 2003)
    • DHHS, Final Modifications to Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information, 5 C.F.R., Parts 160, 164 (Aug. 14, 2002)
    • DHHS, Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information, 45 C.F.R., Parts 160, 164 (Dec. 28, 2000)
    • DHHS, Health Insurance Reform: Standards for Electronic Transactions, 45 C.F.R., Parts 160, 162 (Aug. 17, 2000)
  • Consumer Credit Reporting Reform Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009 (Sept. 30, 1999), amending Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) of 1970, Pub. L. 91-508, 84 Stat. 1114 (Oct. 26, 1970), codified at 15 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.
  • Telecommunications Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-104, 110 Stat. 56 (Feb. 8, 1996), codified at various code sections
  • Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-231, 110 Stat. 3048 (Oct. 2, 1996), amending Freedom of Information Act of 1966, Pub. L. No. 89-554, 80 Stat. 383 (Sep. 6, 1966), codified at 5 U.S.C. 552
  • Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Pub. L. No. 104-13, 109 Stat. 163 (May 22, 1995), codified at 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.
  • Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (“CALEA”) of 1994, Pub. L. No. 103-414, 108 Stat. 4279 (Oct. 25, 1994), codified at 47 U.S.C. 1001-10
  • Drivers Privacy Protection Act of 1994, Pub. L. No. 103-322, 108 Stat. 2099 (Sept. 13, 1994), codified at 18 U.S.C. 2721
  • Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, Pub. L. No. 102-243, 105 Stat 2394 (Dec. 20, 1991), codified at 47 U.S.C. 227
  • Video Privacy Protection Act of 1988, Pub. L. No. 100-618, 102 Stat. 3195 (Nov. 5, 1988), codified at 18 U.S.C. 2710
  • Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, Pub. L. No. 100-503, 102 Stat. 2507 (Oct. 18, 1988), codified at 5 U.S.C. 552a
  • Computer Security Act of 1987, Pub. L. No. 100-235, 101 Stat. 1724 (Jan. 8, 1988), codified at 40 U.S.C. 759
  • Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) of 1986, Pub. L. No. 99-508, 100 Stat. 1848 (Oct. 21, 1986), codified at 18 U.S.C. 2511
  • Counterfeit Access Device and Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-473, 98 Stat. 1837 (Oct. 12, 1984), codified at 18 U.S.C. 1029-1030
  • Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-549, 98 Stat. 2794 (Jun. 19, 1984), codified at 45 U.S.C. 551
  • Privacy Protection Act of 1980, Pub. L. No. 96-440, 94 Stat. 1879 (Oct. 13, 1980), codified at 42 U.S.C. 2000aa
  • Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, Pub. L. No. 95-630, 92 Stat. 3641 (Nov. 10, 1978), codified at 12 U.S.C. 35
  • Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (“FISA” ) of 1978, Pub. L. No. 95-511, 92 Stat. 1783 (Oct. 25, 1978), codified as amended at 50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.
  • Fair Debt Collection Practices Act of 1977, Pub. L. No. 95-109, 91 Stat. 874 (Sept. 20, 1977), codified at 15 U.S.C. 1692 et seq.
  • Privacy Act of 1974, Pub. L. No. 93-579, 88 Stat. 1896 (Dec. 31, 1974), codified at 5 U.S.C. 552a
  • Fair Credit Billing Act of 1974, Pub. L. No. 93-495, 88 Stat. 1500 (Oct. 28, 1974), codified at 15 U.S.C. 1666
  • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974, Pub. L. No. 93-380, 88 Stat. 484 (Aug. 21, 1974), codified at 20 U.S.C. 1232g
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) of 1970, Pub. L. 91-508, 84Stat. 1128 (Oct. 26, 1970), codified at 15 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.
  • Federal Wiretap Statutes, Pub. L. No. 90-351, 82 Stat. 212 (Jun. 19, 1968) (Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968), codified as subsequently amended at 18 U.S.C.

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Protection of employees and information technology

  • Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Pub. L. 105-220, 112 Stat. 936 (Aug. 7, 1998), codified at 29 U.S.C. 794
    • Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards, 36 C.F.R. 1194 (Dec. 21, 2000) (implementing Workforce Investment Act of 1998)
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-336, 104 Stat. 327 (Jul. 26, 1990), codified at 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.
  • Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) of 1986, Pub. L. No. 99-508, 100 Stat. 1848 (Oct. 21, 1986), codified at 18 U.S.C. 2511
  • National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) of 1935, 49 Stat. 449 (Jul. 5, 1935), codified at 29 U.S.C. 151 et seq.

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Taxation and e-commerce/telecommunications services

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Telecommunications regulatory framework: key legislation

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Neither the Transatlantic Technology Law Forum nor any of its partner institutions nor any person acting on its/their behalf may be held responsible for the use which might be made of the information on this website. This information is not necessarily comprehensive, complete, accurate or up to date.